JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is the Java API that manages connecting to a database, issuing queries and commands, and handling result sets obtained from the database. Released as part of JDK 1.1 in 1997, JDBC was one of the earliest libraries developed for the Java language.
JDBC was initially conceived as a client-side API, enabling a Java client to interact with a data source. That changed with JDBC 2.0, which included an optional package supporting server-side JDBC connections. Every new JDBC release since then has featured updates to both the client-side package (
java.sql) and the server-side package (
javax.sql). JDBC 4.3, the most current version as of this writing, was released as part of Java SE 9 in September 2017 as JSR 221.